© 2017 by Kim Eabry - all rights reserved

Electromagnetic Fields -

References

The following are the references I used for a class titled: Electromagnetic Radiation:  What it is, health effects, and how to protect yourself and your kids.  Most reference studies published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, some are from books, and some are lectures or position statements written by scientists or doctors.  

 

This list is meant to be representative, rather than exhaustive; there are in fact thousands of studies documenting negative health effects.  What is important to note is that similar adverse effects are being seen in cell studies, animal studies, and epidemiological (human population) studies, making the case for precautionary action very strong.

 

 

I.  Natural EMFs

 

Panagopoulos, DJ. (2013) Electromagnetic Interaction between Environmental Fields and Living Systems Determines Health and Well-Being. In Kwang, MH. and Yoon, SO. (eds.) Electromagnetic Fields: Principles, Engineering Applications and Biophysical Effects. Nova Publishers. URL: http://citizensforsafetechnology.org/uploads/scribd/Panagopoulos-Nova-2013-EMFs-chapter.pdf

 

 

II. Our Electromagnetic Bodies

 

Ion channels

 

Ashcroft, Frances (2012) The Spark of Life, W.W.Norton, New York City, pp. 33-53.

 

Current of life/injury, bone generation

 

Becker, R.O., and Seldon, G. (1985) The Body Electric, William Morrow, New York.

 

Panagopoulos, DJ. (2013) Electromagnetic Interaction between Environmental Fields and Living Systems Determines Health and Well-Being. In Kwang, MH. and Yoon, SO. (eds.) Electromagnetic Fields: Principles, Engineering Applications and Biophysical Effects. Nova Publishers. URL: http://citizensforsafetechnology.org/uploads/scribd/Panagopoulos-Nova-2013-EMFs-chapter.pdf

 

DNA as Fractal Antenna

 

Blank, M., Goodman, R., (2011) DNA is a fractal antenna in electromagnetic fields, International Journal of Radiation Biology,  Apr;87(4):409-15. doi: 10.3109/09553002.2011.538130. Epub 2011 Feb 28.  URL:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/09553002.2011.538130

 

Biogenic Magnetite

 

Kirschvink, J.L., (1996) Microwave Absorption by Magnetite: A Possible Mechanism for Coupling Non thermal Levels of Radiation to Biological Systems, Bioelectromagnetics 17: 187-194 URL:http://web.gps.caltech.edu/~jkirschvink/pdfs/JoeMicrowave.pdf

 

Kirschvink, J.L., (1992) Magnetite in Human Tissues: A Mechanism for the Biological Effects of Weak ELF Magnetic Fields, Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 1 :101-113 URL:http://web.gps.caltech.edu/~jkirschvink/pdfs/KirschvinkBEMS92.pdf

III.  Vulnerability of Fetus & Children

Gandhi, O.P., et al (2012) Exposure Limits: The underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol 31(1): 34-51, doi: 10.3109/15368378.2011.622827, URL: https://www.healthandenvironment.org/uploads/docs/Gandhi_et_al_Printed_Version_2-14-121.pdf

 

Hardell, L., and Carlberg, M. (2009) Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours, International Journal of Oncology, Vol 35:5-17 doi: 10.3892/ijo_00000307  URL:   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/26279874_Mobile_phones_cordless_phones_and_the_risk_for_brain_tumours

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Infante-Rivard C, Deadman JE. (2003) Maternal occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields during pregnancy and childhood leukemia. Epidemiology. 14(4):437- 41.  doi: 10.1097/01.ede.0000078421.60231.bc  URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12843769/

 

 

IV.  Adverse Cellular Level, or “Biological” effects

 

Triggering of voltage-gated calcium ion channels, oxidative stress

 

Pall, M. (2013) Electromagnetic fields act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects,  J. Cell. Mol. Med. Vol 17, No 8,  pp. 958-965doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12088 URL:https://www.emfanalysis.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/EMF-Effects-via-Voltage-Gated-Calcium-Channels-Dr-Martin-Pall.pdf

 

DNA damage

Diem, E., et. al. (2005) Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro, Mutation Research, Jun 6;583(2), pp. 178-83, doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2005.03.006,  URL:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15869902

 

Environmental Health Trust, (2106) FAQ’s on the U.S. National Toxicology Program Radiofrequency Carcinogenicity Research Study, URL: http://ehtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/FAQs-NTP-Radiofrequency-Rodent-Study.pdf

 

Lai, H, and Singh, P. (1995) Acute Low-Intensity Microwave Exposure Increases DNA Single-Strand Breaks in Rat Brain Cells, Bioelectromagnetics, Vol 16:207-210 doi: 10.1002/bem.2250160309, URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bem.2250160309/abstract

 

Blood brain barrier leakage & consequent nerve damage

 

Frey, A.H., Feld, S.R., & Frey, B. (1975) Neural Function and Behavior: Defining the Relationship, Annals of the New York Academy of Science, Vol 247, Biologic Effects of Non-Ionizing Radiation, pp. 433-439,  doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1975.tb36019.x  URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1975.tb36019.x/abstract

 

Salford, l., Nittby, H., & Persson, B.R.R. (2012) Effects of Electromagnetic Fields From Wireless Communication Upon the Blood Brain Barrier, BioInitiative Report, Section 10, URL: http://www.bioinitiative.org/report/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/sec10_2012_Effects_Electromagnetic_Fields_Wireless_Communication.pdf

 

Salford, L. (2012) Lecture: Electromagnetic Fields and Leakage of the Blood Brain Barrier URL:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E_WJ_aJPWIA

 

Salford, L. (2006) Lecture Abstract: Non-thermal effects of EMF upon the mammalian brain, International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety, City of Benvenuto, Italy   URL:http://www.icems.eu/docs/Salford.pdf

 

Salford, L., et al (2003) Nerve Cell Damage in Mammalian Brain after Exposure to Microwaves from GSM Mobile Phones, Environmental Health Persepectives, Vol 111(7) pp. 881-883 URL: https://ehs.ucsd.edu/rad/pdf/mobilephones.pdf

 

Melatonin reduction - Light & EMFs

 

Davanipour, Z., and Sobel, E. (2012) ELF MF – Melatonin Production – Alzheimer’s Disease and Breast Cancer 2012 Updated Chapter, Bioinitiative Report, Section 13, URL: http://www.bioinitiative.org/report/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/sec13_2012_ELF_Melatonin_Alzheimers_Breast_cancer.pdf

Holzman, D. (2010) What's in a Color? The Unique Human Health Effects of Blue Light, Environmental Health Perspectives,  Jan; Vol. 118(1): A22–A27.  doi: 10.1289/ehp.118-a22, URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2831986/pdf/ehp-118-a22.pdf

Wunsch, A. (2016) Lecture: Photoendocrinology: How natural & artificial light is impacting human’s endocrine system & hormones, presented at LightSymposium, Wismar, Germany.  URL: https://vimeo.com/187834155

V.  Adverse Downstream Health Outcomes

 

 

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

 

Herbert, M.R., and Sage, C. (2013) Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link – Part I, Pathophysiology, Vol. 20 Issue 3, pp. 191-209.  doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2013.08.001  URL: http://www.pathophysiologyjournal.com/article/S0928-4680(13)00037-0/pdf

 

Herbert, M.R., and Sage, C. (2013) Autism and EMF? Plausibility of a pathophysiological link – Part I, Pathophysiology, Vol. 20 Issue 3, pp.211-234.  doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2013.08.002  URL: http://www.pathophysiologyjournal.com/article/S0928-4680(13)00038-2/pdf

 

Pall, M. (2016) Lecture: The autism epidemic is caused by low intensity EMFs (acting via VGCC activation), posted by AutismOne Media, May 29, URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LaseiYfvtAQ&index=3&list=PLhEP48SlnzKptLlVrwljXGV1pui1yVnk1

 

Sullivan, P. (2106) All Things Considered, Dec. 16, URL: http://www.clearlightventures.com/blog/

 

Sullivan, P. (2106) Lecture: Wireless: A Key Piece of the Autism Puzzle and What You Can Do About It, posted by AutismOne Media, URL:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kDyR14UcM8A&list=PLhEP48SlnzKptLlVrwljXGV1pui1yVnk1

 

Decreased Fertility

 

Adams, J.A., et al (2014) Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Environment International, vol 70:106-112 doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.015  URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412014001354

 

Agarwal, A. et al (2008) Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study,  Journal of Fertility and Sterility, vol 89(1)124-128,  doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.01.166

URL: http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(07)00332-9/pdf

 

Avendano, C. (2012) Use of laptop computers connected to internet through WiFi decreases human sperm motility and increases DNA fragmentation, Journal of Fertility and Sterility, Vol 97(1)39-45  doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.10.012  URL: http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(11)02678-1/pdf

 

Houston, B.J., et al (2016) The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function, Reproduction, Dec. vol. 152(6) R263-R276  doi: 10.1530/REP-16-0126  URL: http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/152/6/R263.long

 

 

Childhood Leukemia

 

Kundi, M. (2012) Evidence for Childhood Cancers (Leukemia), Bioinitiative Report, Section 12, Bioinititative Working Group, URL: http://www.bioinitiative.org/report/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/sec12_2012_Evidence_%20Childhood_Cancers.pdf

 

Breast Cancer

 

Arendt, J. (2010) Shift Work, Coping with the Biological Clock, Occupational Medicine, vol. 60 pp.10–20 doi:10.1093/occmed/kqp162  URL: https://academic.oup.com/occmed/article/60/1/10/1439565/Shift-work-coping-with-the-biological-clock

 

Davanipour, Z., and Sobel, E. (2012) ELF MF – Melatonin Production – Alzheimer’s Disease and Breast Cancer 2012 Updated Chapter, Bioinitiative Report, Section 13, URL: http://www.bioinitiative.org/report/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/sec13_2012_ELF_Melatonin_Alzheimers_Breast_cancer.pdf

Brain Tumors

 

Carlberg, M. and Hardell, L. (2014) Decreased Survival of Glioma Patients with Astrocytoma Grade IV (Glioblastoma Multiforme) Associated with Long-Term Use of Mobile and Cordless Phones, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 11, pp. 10790-10805, doi: 10.3390/ijerph111010790, URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267044548_Decreased_Survival_of_Glioma_Patients_with_Astrocytoma_Grade_IV_Glioblastoma_Multiforme_Associated_with_Long-Term_Use_of_Mobile_and_Cordless_Phones

 

Environmental Health Trust, (2106) FAQ’s on the U.S. National Toxicology Program Radiofrequency Carcinogenicity Research Study, URL: http://ehtrust.org/wp-content/uploads/FAQs-NTP-Radiofrequency-Rodent-Study.pdf

 

Hardell, L., and Carlberg, M. (2009) Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours, International Journal of Oncology, Vol 35:5-17 doi: 10.3892/ijo_00000307   URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/26279874_Mobile_phones_cordless_phones_and_the_risk_for_brain_tumours

 

Hardell, L., and Carlberg, M. (2013) Using the Hill viewpoints from 1965 for evaluating strengths of evidence of the risk for brain tumors associated with use of mobile and cordless phones, Reviews in Environmental Health, Vol. 28(2-3) pp. 97-106, doi: 10.1515/reveh-2013-0006   URL: http://thepeoplesinitiative.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Hardell-Carlberg-Rev-Environ-Health-2013.pdf

 

Wyde, M. et al, (2016)  Report of Partial Findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley SD rats (Whole Body Exposure)  bioRxiv beta, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, May 26, doi:10.1101/055699 http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2016/06/23/055699.full.pdf

 

Electro-hypersensitivity (EHS)

 

Belpomme, D., Campagnac, C., and Irigaray, P. (2015) Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electro-hypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder, Reviews in Environmental Health, 30(4): 251–271, De Grutyer, doi 10.1515/reveh-2015-0027

URL: http://thoughtcrimeradio.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/EMF-BelPomme-et-al-2015-Reliable-disease-biomarkers-characterizing-and-identifying-electrohypersensitivity-and-multiple-chemical-sensitivit.pdf

 

Belyaev, I., et. al. (2016) EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses, Reviews in Environmental Health, De Grutyer, doi:10.1515/reveh-2016-0011

URL: http://www.stralskyddsstiftelsen.se/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/EUROPAEM-EMF-Guideline-2016-for-the-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-EMF-related-health-problems-and-illnesses.pdf

 

Guideline of the Austrian Medical Association for the diagnosis and treatment of EMF related health problems and illnesses (EMF syndrome) Consensus paper of the Austrian Medical Association’s EMF Working Group (AG-EMF) Adopted at the meeting of environmental medicine officers of the Regional Medical Association´s and the Austrian Medical Association on 3rd March 2012 in Vienna.  URL:http://www.magdahavas.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Austrian-EMF-Guidelines-2012.pdf 

 

Mallery-Blythe, E. (2014) Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity: A Summary by Dr. Erica Mallery-Blythe,  Working Draft Version 1 URL:http://www.iemfa.org/wp-content/pdf/Mallery-Blythe-v1-EESC.pdf

VI.  Effects on Wildlife

 

US Department of Interior letter to Department of Commerce regarding tower kills and non-thermal effects on migratory bird populations (2014)  https://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/us_doi_comments.pdf

 

Balmori, A. (2009) Electromagnetic pollution from phone masts. Effects on wildlife, Pathophysiology, (16) 191–199, doi:10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.01.007 URL:http://www.jivamedia.com/optimage/education/EMF-Effects-on-Wild-Life_Balmori_2009.pdf

 

Balmori, A. (2010) Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporalis) tadpoles: the city turned into a laboratory, Electromagnetic Biological Medicine,  Jun 29 (1-2):31-5. doi: 10.3109/15368371003685363, URL:http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/15368371003685363

 

Favre, D. (2011) Mobile phone-induced honeybee worker piping, Apidologie, (42)270-279. doi: 10.1007/s13592-011-0016-x, URL:http://peccem.org/DocumentacionDescarga/Cientificos/Estudios/Mobile_phone_induced_honeybee_worker_piping_favre_apidologie.pdf

 

Holland, R.A., et. al. (2008) Bats Use Magnetite to Detect the Earth's Magnetic Field, Public Library of Science, Feb 27, 2008, URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001676

 

Johansson, O. and Cammaerts, M. (2013) Ants can be used as bio-indicators to reveal biological effects of electromagnetic waves from some wireless apparatus, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, Early Online 1-7, doi: 10.3109/15368378.2013.817336,  URL:http://emfsummit.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Cammaerts-Johansson-2013.pdf

 

Lohmann, K.J., Putman, N.F., and Lohmann, C. M. F.,  (2008) Geomagnetic imprinting: A unifying hypothesis of long-distance natal homing in salmon and sea turtles, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Dec 9, 2008  doi: 10.1073pnas.0801859105   URL: http://www.unc.edu/depts/geomag/PDFGeomag/2008PNAS.pdf

 

Phillips, J.B., Muheim, R. and Jorge, P.E. (2010) A behavioral perspective on the biophysics of the light-dependent magnetic compass: a link between directional and spatial perception?  The Journal of Experimental Biology, 213, 3247-3255  doi:10.1242/jeb.020792  URL:http://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/213/19/3247.full.pdf

 

Ritz, T., et. al. (2004) Resonance effects indicate a radical-pair mechanism for avian magnetic compass, Nature, Vol 429, 13 May, pp. 177-180, URL:http://www.physics.uci.edu/~tritz/Publications/RITZ2004.pdf

 

 

VII.  Effects on Plants

 

Al-Kathiri, F., et. al. (2016) Impact of RF electromagnetic field on cucumber and tomato plants, Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference, IEEE 7th Annual, URL:http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7746234/

Roux, D., Vian, A. , Girard S., et. al. (2008) High frequency (900 MHz) low amplitude (5 V m-1) electromagnetic field: a geniune enviromental stimulus that affects transcription, translation, calcium, and energy charge in tomato, Planta, Mar;227(4) 883-91, doi: 10.1007/s00425-007-0664-2, URL:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00425-007-0664-2

Vian, A., Davies, E., and Bonnet, P. (2013) Intercellular Communication in Plants: Evidence for an EMF-Generated Signal that Evokes Local and Systemic Transcriptional Responses in Tomato, Long Distance Systemic Signaling and Communication in Plants, ed. Baluska F., pp. 309-321 Abstract URL:http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-36470-9_16

Waldmann-Selsam, C. et al (2016) Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations, Science of the Total Environment, vol. 572:554-569  doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.045 URL: http://media.withtank.com/cf9ae35027/waldmann-selsam_2016_scitotenv572p554-569_rf__trees.pdf

 

VIII.  Corporate Manufacture of Doubt

 

Dr. Henry Lai’s funding graph URL:https://www.emfanalysis.com/research/

 

Devra Davis (2010) Disconnect: the truth about mobile-phone radiation, what the industry has done to hide it, and how to protect your family, Dutton, New York, p.108

 

Kenyon, G. (2016) The man who studies the spread of ignorance, BBC Future, URL: http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20160105-the-man-who-studies-the-spread-of-ignorance?ocid=ww.social.link.twitter

 

McGarity, T.D. and Wagner, W.E. (2008) Bending Science: How Special Interests Corrupt Public Health Research, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

 

Oreskes, N. and Conway, E. (2010) Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming, Bloomsbury Publishing, USA

 

Kenner, R. (dir) and Roberts, K. (writer) (2014) Merchants of Doubt, Participant media, Omidyar Network & Sony Pictures – motion picture based on the book of the same title (see above ref).

 

IX.  Calls to Action

 

International Appeal: Scientists call for Protection from Non-ionizing Electromagnetic Field Exposure, URL:https://emfscientist.org/

 

California Medical Association House of Delegates Resolution Wireless Standards Reevaluation (2014)  URL:http://ehtrust.org/the-california-medical-association-wireless-resolution/

 

American Academy of Pediatrics Letter to FCC Aug 29, 2013 URL:https://ecfsapi.fcc.gov/file/7520941318.pdf

 

American Academy of Environmental Medicine Letter to CPUC Re: “smart meters” Jan 9, 2012 URL:  http://emfsafetynetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/AAEM-Resolution.pdf

 

American Academy of Environmental Medicine Open letter about WiFi in schools Nov 14, 2013

URL:https://aaemonline.org/pdf/WiredSchools.pdf

 

X.  Precautionary Principle

 

Gee, D., (2009) Late Lessons from Early Warnings: Towards realism and precaution with EMF? Pathophysiology, Vol. 16, pp. 217–231, doi:10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.01.004 URL:http://www.pathophysiologyjournal.com/article/S0928-4680(09)00008-X/pdf

 

Kreibel, D. et. al. (2001) The Precautionary Principle in Environmental Science, Environmental Health Perspectives, Sep: 109(9):871-876.  URL:http://www.precaution.org/lib/ehp_kriebel.pdf

 

Schafer, K.S., and Marquez, E.C. (2012) A Generation in Jeopardy How pesticides are undermining our children’s health & intelligence, Pesticide Action Network North America.  See sidebar p. 27: “When Is There Enough Evidence to Act?”  URL: http://www.panna.org/sites/default/files/KidsHealthReportOct2012.pdf\